Bilva root (Aegle marmelos), Agnimantha root (Premna integrifolia), Shyonaka root (Oroxylum indicum), Patala root (Stereospermym suaveolens), Kashmari root (Gmelina arborea), Bruhati root (Solanum indicum), Kantakari root (Solanum xanthocarpum), Shalaparni root (Desmodium gangeticum), Prushniparni root (Uraria picta), Gokshura root (Tribulus terrestris) Dashmools are an important group of ten plants whose  roots are used for a variety of purposes .
Ayurvedic description:

  • Rasa (taste): astringent, sweet
  • Virya (action): warming
  • Vipaka (post-digestive effect): pungent
  • Doshas (constitutions): Balancing for vata and kapha
  • Dhatu ( tissue)
  • Srotas (channel) : Respiratory, nerve, digestive
  • Ayurvedic Action
  • Vatasamana pacifies vata and nervous system
  • Kasasvasahara Alleviates cough and asthma
  • Jwarahara Alleviates fevers
  • Sulaghna Alleviates pain
  • Biomedical Action

Expectorant, antiasthmatic, nervine, febrifuge, analgesic
Nerves Dasamoola is indicated for aggravations of the nervous system and pain when they are signs of debility. It is used as a decoction or enema for lower back pain, sciatica, tremors, parkinson’s disease and inflammation in the pelvic and sacral region.
Lungs for dry cough and respiratory weakness when there is high vata dashmula can be used as a tonic to strengthen the system.
Fevers when the immune system is depleted and is not throwing off  fevers the decoction can cause diaphoresis and release the trapped ama toxins.

  • Bala or Ashwagandha oil as a massage for lower back pain
  • Punarnavadi guggulu when back pain is complicated by water stagnation.
  • Trikatu and vasa for respiratory problems.
  • Tulsi for fevers.

Dashmoola uses –
Dashmoola is used in Ayurveda texts for the following disorders ;
Pyrexia (different types of fevers ), acute and chronic asthma, chronic cough, hiccups cough , all types of vata disorders , pain disorders , epilepsy, heart diseases, renal disorders,all types of paralysis, ascites and all types of post dilivery complaints, tetanus aphrodisiac, infertility and in panchkarma treatments mainly Basti, ShiroDhara, Swedan Karma.
Medicines of Dashmoola used in Ayurveda effective in various diseases :
Dashmoola Kwatha i.e.decoction.
Dashmoola Guda,Sweet preparation with jaggerry .
Dashmoola oil .
Dashmoola Medicated Ghee .
Dashmoola Haritaki ( Combined with Hirda )
Dashmoolarishtha ( herbal liquid which is used in large quantities all over  India.)
Uses of Dashmoola plants : 
The Drugs of Dashmoola are used in the treatment of various diseases of almost all the systems of the body specifically works on the Respiratory, Gasto-Intestine. Genito urinary and Central nervous systems .Also used in the musculo skeletal and joint diseases. The druges of Dashmoola are considered as immunomodular , general restorative tonic and Geriatrics .
Ayurvedic Pharmacies used the Dashmoola drugs as single or in combination for the preparation of their classical and patent medicines.
Ayurvedic Physicians commonly used the drugs of Dashmoola in their private practice & the fruits of Bilva and Gokshur seperataly .

1. Bilva ( Aegle marmelos)- Just like Tulsi plant is sacred to Lord Krishna and Durva grass is sacred to Lord Ganesha, Bilva tree is sacred to Lord Shiva. Since the Bilva leaf has such significance in the worship of Lord Shiva, it is common to find Bilva trees cultivated in the vicinity of Shiva temples.
Properties- Bilva is astringent and bitter in taste , pungent in the post digestive effect and has hot potency . It alleviates kapha and vata dosas, but aggravates the pitta dosa. It has astringent, anti-diarrhoeal, appetizer and digestant properties. The raw fruit is an appetizer, digestant and an astringent, whereas the ripened fruit is astringent, sweet but mild laxative in properties. The ripened fruit is heavy to digest and in large doses, it causes flatulence and abates peristalsis. Bilva possessed dry an light attributes.
Root– A preparation made from the root with ginger and toasted rice cures vomiting. For the treatment of piles, dysentery and diarrhoea, a preparation is made from the root mixed with another tuberous root. The oil extracted from the Bilva root, boiled with the juice of Bilva leaves and applied to the head is excellent for nasal catarrh and diseases of the ear.
2. Agnimantha  (Premna integrifolia)- It is a good anti-vata herbal remedy, is useful for edema and degenerative disorders.
Properties- 1.Rasa (taste): Tikta (bitter), Katu (pungent), Kashaya (astringent), Madhura (sweet)
2.Guna (quality): Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
3.Virya (energy): Ushna (heating)
4.Vipaka (post digestive effect): Katu (pungent)
Uses- Thermogenic, anodyne, antiinflammatory, alexeteric, expectorant, febrifuge, galactogogue, depurative, laxative, digestive, liver stimulant, carminative, cardiac stimulant, cardio tonic, antibacterial, tonic & useful in cough, cold, asthma, bronchitis, anorexia, constipation, hepatopathy, neuralgia, haemorrhoids, fever, diabetes, agalactia, colic & tumour etc.
3. Shyonaka  (Oroxylum indicum)- The common name ‘midnight horror’ is probably in reference to the fact that the flowers tend to open at night and have a distinctly foul smell.

  • Properties and Uses-Rasa: madhura tikta, kashaya, katu (root); tikta, katu, kashaya (bark); madhura, kashaya (unripe fruit); madhura, katu (ripe fruit)
  • Vipaka: katu
  • Virya: shita

Shyonaka root is perhaps best known as an ingredient the Dashamula or ‘ten roots’ formula, but is also found in the famous confection Chyavanaprash, and Narayana taila.Shyonakaroot, bark and leaf is an important remedy for inflammation of the digestive tract, such as vomiting, ulceration or diarrhea, used by itself as the freshly collected bark juice or a cold infusion of the root bark powder.

4. Patala (Stereospermym suaveolens)-
Properties and Uses- Rasa: 
Tikta ; Kashaya, madhura
Guna: Guru
Veerya:Usna, Anusna

This is a middle sized flowering tree, a native of Bengal. The flowers are large, of a dark crimson colour and exquisitely fragrant. Steeped in water they impart their fragrance to it. Rubbed up with honey they are given to check hiccup. The root-bark is an ingredient of dasamula ( see Desmodium gangeticum ), and is thus largely used in native medicine. It is regarded as cooling, diuretic and tonic, and is generally used in combination with other medicines. The ashes of this plant are used in the preparation of alkaline water and caustic pastes.

5. Kashmari (Gmelina arborea)-

Properties & Uses-Gmelina arborea is a fast growing tree, mali which though grows on different localities and prefers moist fertile valleys with 750–4500 mm rainfall. It does not thrive on ill-drained soils and remains stunted on dry, sandy or poor soils; drought also reduces it to a shrubby form.
The root and bark of Gmelina arborea are stomachic, galactagogue laxative and anthelmintic; improve appetite, useful in hallucination, piles, abdominal pains, burning sensations, fevers, 'tridosha' and urinary discharge. Leaf paste is applied to relieve headache and juice is used as wash for ulcers.
Flowers are sweet, cooling, bitter, acrid and astringent. They are useful in leprosy and blood diseases.The fruit is acrid, sour, bitter, sweet, cooling, diuretic tonic, aphrodisiac, alternative astringent to the bowels, promote growth of hairs, useful in 'vata', thirst, anaemia, leprosy, ulcers and vaginal discharge.
The plant is recommended in combination with other drugs for the treatment of snakebite and scorpion sting. In snakebite a decoction of the root and bark is given internally.
6. Bruhati  (Solanum indicum)-
Rasa : Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Katu
The herb is specifically used to boost sexual desire, fight diarrhea, stimulate heart and blood circulation, treat meteorism, and resolve body fluids.
The root is particularly useful for inducing perspiration and urination, treating coughs, and stimulating the organism.
The list of conditions in which the herb is applied includes: helminthes, hard urination, toothache, scorpion bites, meteorism, edema, painful and dry coughs, colic, recurrent fevers, chest pains, catarrh, and asthma.

7. Kantakari root (Solanum xanthocarpum)-

GUNA      :  Ruksha, Laghu ,Tikshan
RASA              : Tikt, Katu
VIPAK   :  Katu
VIRYA        :  Ushan
PRABHAV :  Kashar

The herb itself is known to boost metabolic rates, kill helminthes, relieve stomach conditions, induce expectoration, urination; fight diarrhea, and act as a bitter tonic.
Flowers, fruits, and stems are known to fight flatulence.
The root is used to relieve fevers, induce expectoration, and urination.
Each plant’s part is applied for treating gonorrhea, chest pains, heart conditions, dropsy, flatulence, asthma, coughs, and fevers.
Herb’s root (used as a confection or decoction) is usually prescribed for chest pains, catarrhal fevers, asthma, dropsy, bladder stones, dysuria, and coughs. It is also beneficial in case of enlarged spleen and liver.
The plant belongs to 10 most active root sources in Ayurvedic medicine. Thus, it is highly valued in Indian traditional medicine.

8. Shalaparni (Desmodium gangeticum)-
Shalaparni is sweet in taste and mildy warming in action.  It is calming, strengthening and anti-inflammatory.  It restores balance to the system when other herbs fail.

  • Rasa: tikta, madhura
  • Virya: ushna, guru

Shalaparni Root is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine as an Anti-inflammatory, Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal, Anti-pyretic, Spasmolytic, Analgesic, Anti-arthritic. It has other uses as a smooth muscle relaxant, and bronchial muscle relaxant. The leaves and stem of Shalaparni are used in African countries for fevers, skin diseases and anxiety.

9. Prushniparni (Uraria picta)-

Rasa : Madhura, Amla, Katu, Tikta
Guna : Laghu, Sara
Virya : Ushna
Vipaka : Madhura
It is an antifungal, it cures pus formation, swelling and pain.Its powder is sprinkled over tuberculoid ulcers or its paste.It is used in painful swelling.
It stimulates brain and nervous system.
It act as cardiac stimulant and blood purifier. Best medicine for cardiac asthma.
Useful in amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea.It is useful in skin disorders.

10. Gokshura  (Tribulus terrestris)-

Guna-Guru, Snigdha
It act as analgesic used in neural debility, painful conditions and vata disorders. It is used in low appetite, piles.It is cardiotonic, anti-inflammatory and helps in haemorrhagic disorders.It is used in heart diseases.It is used in cough and asthma.
It is an aphrodisiac and helps in conception, useful in preventing abortion, vaginal disorders, impotency and post natal discharges.Useful in debility.

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